Trade Agreements Globalization

The nodes that make up the final demand play the role of wells in the economic network of commodity flows, which leads to a rapid saturation of the TIout with the increase in αmax. In contrast, these nodes become sources of cash flow where no convergent TIin behavior is observed. This is shown in Figure 6, which shows the distributions of TIout and TIin for different αmax values. This is to take into account all the pairs of countries that have traded a BTA during the period studied. It turns out that TIin values do not converge for economically reasonable path lengths. In addition, we observe in Figure 7 that the BTA impact indices in country inputs tend to have smaller values, with an increase in αmax. Figures 7A,B show the input-BTA effect indices in all countries for αmax = 1 (αmax = 10). For example, there is a trend towards smaller values in Europe, Australia, Algeria and Central America. This general trend occurs because loops within a country of the trading network become more important for TIin for higher αmax values. The probabilities of these national loops decrease with the time that international trade has increased over the study period [19].

Figure 8 shows an example of the series from Algeria to the European Union. With the increase in the maximum length of the paths, the BTA impact index decreases, as national loops have become less likely in recent years. Previously, the EU was able to negotiate and/or conclude (traditional) trade agreements without generating great public interest or opposition, despite protests against globalisation. However, this has not been the case for the Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership (TTIP) between the EU and the US and CETA. These global agreements have highlighted public concern about the impact of globalisation on society and the environment and have been the subject of much controversy.5 In addition, the counter-reaction against globalisation against the European Union, perceived as a priority over economic objectives on ensuring that these objectives are compatible with social and environmental concerns6. Stated that global cooperation was an important component of achieving all degrees of world peace — political, economic and social. The aim was to harmonise the conditions of competition for trade and reduce economic divergences, as inequalities in these areas could lead to more serious conflicts. .

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